The subject of Anne reading to her daughter, the VIrgin Mary, was popularized in mediaeval paintings, but these art works bear little resemblance to our earthenware figure.
The Fitzwilliam Museum owns this rather similar looking figure--thanks to Stephen Duckworth for telling me about it. The figure is French, faience, made in Rennes between 1750 and 1799. And, importantly, it is titled S. ANNE. Based on this, you may conclude that the Enoch Wood figure is the same subject, and you may well be right.
Note that the Derby figure more closely resembles Roger's Enoch Wood figure in both the positioning of the mother and child, and in the use of a high-backed chair. Derby paired The Prudent Mother with another figure, which it called Madonna and Child.
And if you like this figure form, please buy Roger's. Don't buy later versions, such as the one below.